1. General glossary

1. condemn (v.) – осъждам
2. suburban home (phr.) – крайградски дом
3. strangle (v.) – задушавам, удушавам
4. douse (v.) – потапям, цопвам
5. gasoline (n.) – бензин
6. juror (n.) – съдебен заседател
7. Superior Court (n.) – Щатски съд
8. unanimously (adv.) – единодушно
9. span (n.) – промеждутък, ограничен период от време
10. judge (n.) – съдия
11. impose the sentence (phr.) – налагане на наказанието
12. persuade (v.) – убеждавам, увещавам
13. death penalty (phr.) – смъртно наказание
14. clumsy (adj.) – тромав, непохватен
15. drug-addicted (adj.) – наркозависим
16. thief (n.) – крадец
17. burglar (n.) – крадец с взлом, обирджия
18. co-defendant (n.) – съответник
19. mastermind (n.) – главен ръководител, мозък
20. remorseful (adj.) – разкаян
21. prosecutor (n.) – ищец, прокурор
22. hostage (n.) – заложник
23. testimony () свидетелство, свидетелски показания
24. smoke inhalation (phr.) – вдишване на дим
25. unsettling (adj.) – обезпокоителен
26. tougher (adj.) – строг, труден
27. offender (n.) – нарушител
28. home invasion (phr.) – домашен взлом
29. abolish (v.) – отменям
30. punishment (n.) – наказание
31. aggravating factors (phr.) – утежняващи вината фактори
32. heinous (adj.) – отвратителен, гнусен
32. mitigating (adj.) – смекчаващ
33. harsh (adj.) – суров, груб
34. testify (v.) – свидетелствам
35. trial (n.) – процес, пробен период      

2. Definitions of criminal offences

Assault and battery (нападение и побой)
Inflicting  physical injury
Arson (палеж, подпалвачетво)
The purposeful burning of any kind of structure
Breach of trust (злоупотреба с доверие)
The offer or acceptance of anything of value in exchange for influence on a government/public official or employee.
Bribery (подкупничество)
Violation of a duty by a person in charge of funds
Child abuse (насилие върху дете)
Any type of cruelty inflicted upon a child, including mental abuse, physical harm, neglect, and sexual abuse or exploitation
Disorderly conduct (противообществено поведение)
Conduct in which the offender follows, harasses, or threatens another person, putting that person in fear for his or her safety
Domestic violence (домашно насилие)
Physical harm inflicted on one member of a household or family by another member of the same household or family (usually between spouses)
Tax evasion (укриване на данъци)
Purposeful avoidance of paying state, or local taxes
Embezzlement (незаконно присвояване, обсебване)
Theft of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets
Extortion (изнудване, грабителство)
The gaining of property by force, or threat of violence, property damage or harm to reputation
Forgery (фалшификация, подправка)
The making of a fake document, the changing of an existing document, or the making of a signature without authorization.
Contempt of court (обида на съда)
Conduct that defies, disrespects or insults the authority or dignity of a court
Indecent exposure (непристойно поведение)
Purposeful display of one’s genitals in public, causing others to be alarmed or offended
Larceny (кражба на лични вещи)
Taking someone else’s property without the consent of the owner
Manslaughter (непредумишлено убийство)
Unintentional killing that results from recklessness or criminal negligence
Perjury (лъжесвидетелстване)
Lying after taking an oath to tell the truth, such as when testifying in court or communicating through certain legal documents.
Solicitation (склоняване, ходатайстване)
Requesting, encouraging or demanding someone to engage in criminal conduct, most commonly prostitution
Stalking (хулиганство)
To be drink in public, to “disturb the peace”
Statutory rape (изнасилване)
Sexual relations involving someone below the age of consent
Fraud (измама, измамник)
a. intentional perversion of truth in order to induce another to part with something of value or to surrender a legal right
b.  an act of deceiving or misrepresenting
c. a person who is not what he or she pretends to be:  impostor; also:  one who defrauds (cheat)
Smuggling (контрабанда)
to import or export secretly contrary to the law and especially without paying duties imposed by law
Kidnapping (отвличане, похищение)
to seize and detain or carry away by unlawful force or fraud and often with a demand for ransom
Murder (предумишлено убийство)
the crime of unlawfully killing a person especially with malice (злонамереност, злоба) aforethought (предумишлен)
Hijacking (отвличане)
stealing by stopping a vehicle on the highway
Blackmail (изнудване, шантаж)
the payment that is extorted
Carjacking (кражба на кола)
the action of violently stealing an occupied car.
Tax evasion (укриване на данъци) is illegal. Tax avoidance (избягването на данъци) is making arrangements which are legal so that you pay less tax.

1. In 2016 some 13 percent of the $ 400 billion given to U.S. charitable institutions was lost through embezzlement (незаконно присвояване).

2. He left that in letting Dunstan have the money, he had already been guilty of a breach of trust (злоупотреба с доверие) hardly less culpable (престъпен) than that of spending the money directly for his own benefit.

3. Wilson refused to cooperate with the investigation and was jailed last week for contempt of court (обида на съда).

4. An abortion clinic worker advised her to lie about her age so she could avoid reporting a statutory rape (изнасилване) and obtain an abortion.

5. Stalking (хулиганството) may involve repeated attempts to establish a close relationship with the victim and non-consensual (насилствен, с насилие) communication such as making repeated telephone calls.

6. Although the practice of breastfeeding (кърмене) is common not only in developing nations, but in much of Europe too, in America it has sometimes led to painful situations where nursing mothers have been arrested for indecent exposure (непристойно поведение)

7. Each of the witnesses answered in the affirmative, and, given their conflicting testimony (свидетелски показания), one of them likely committed perjury (лъжесвидетелстване).

8. Hundreds of thousands of dollars was missing and presumed by Mr. Ward in a sophisticated embezzlement (обиграно присвояване) scheme.

9. Antonio Johnson, a convicted felon (осъден престъпник), is now charged with six counts of forgery (с шест обвинения за фалшифициране) for falsifying (фалшифициране) signatures on voter registration forms.

10. In Massachusetts, having sex with a 15-year-old equals statutory rape (изнасилване).

11. Children who come from homes where domestic violence (домашно насилие) take place, carry with them the traces of violent patterns for their entire lives.

12. The fire that killed their mother was no accident. It was arson (палеж).

13. He and Mr. Bello face charges of grand larceny (едра кражба) and possession of stolen property.

14. Money laundering (пране на пари), tax evasion and solicitation of prostitution (склоняване към проституция), are just some of the charges that Spitzer could face here.

15. With this procedure there are a lot more opportunities for corruption, shady practices and bribery (подкупничество).

16. We have been focused on off-shore tax evasion (офшорно укриване на данъците) wealthy individuals parking assets overseas and then not paying the taxes that they owe.

3. Completing the text using the following nouns

1. The criminal justice process typically begins when a police officer places a person under arrest (човек под домашен арест).

2. It occurs when a person has been taken into police custody (полицейски арест) and is no longer free to leave or move about.

3. The use of physical restraint (физическо задържане, ограничаване) or handcuffs (белезници) is not always necessary. A police officer may usually arrest a person in the following circumstances.

4. If a police officer personally sees someone commit a crime, the officer may arrest that individual. For example a police officer pulls over a vehicle that is being driven erratically, and after administering a Breathalyzer test (тест дрегер), sees that the driver’s alcohol intoxication level is more than twice the state’s legal limit (правна граница) for safe operation of a vehicle. When a police officer has a reasonable belief, based on facts and circumstances, that a person has committed or is about to commit a crime, the officer may arrest that person. This belief, known as “probable cause” (вероятна причина) may arise from any number of different facts and circumstances.

5. When a police officer has obtained a valid warrant (валидна заповед) to arrest a person, the arrest is lawful (законен).

6. An arrest warrant is a legal document issued by a judge or magistrate, usually after a police officer has submitted a sworn statement (клетвена декларация) that sets out the basis for the arrest.

7. After a criminal suspect (подозрение за извършено престъпление) is arrested, the next step in the case is to determine whether he or she is eligibile for release (освобождаване) from custody in exchange for the posting of a set amount of money – bail (пари под гаранция).

4. Legal term definitions

Arraignment (обвинение, призоваване на съд)
A procedure in which an accused person is called before a court to answer the charge made against him or her by indictment (обвинителен акт, предявяване на обвинение), information, or complaint.
Plea bargain (сделка с прокуратурата)
A legal procedure seeking to have a criminal conviction overturned or sentence reduced
Preliminary hearing (предварително изслушване)
A “trial before the trial” at which the judge decides whether there is enough evidence to force the defendant to stand trial.
Pre-trial motions (досъдебно производство)
Arguments that certain evidence should be kept out of the trial, that certain persons must or cannot testify, or that the case should be dismissed altogether.
Appeal (обжалване)
A procedure in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty to one or more charges (often to a lesser charge than the one for which the defendant could stand trial) in exchange for a more lenient sentence.
Expungement (заличаване)
A court-ordered process in which the legal record of an arrest or a criminal conviction is “sealed”, or erased in the eyes of the law

5. Collocations

Aggravating (отежняващ)
factor, circumstance, behavior, evidence,
Forensic (съдебен)
pathologist, evidence, laboratory, expert,  
Law-abiding (спазващ закона)
citizens, life, people, behavior, man
Heinous (отвратителен, гнусен)
crime, murder, behavior, act, violation
Unlawful (незаконен)
arrest, wiretapping, possession, entry, imprisonment

6. Completing the sentences using the following verbs in the correct form

1. The judge overruled (отхвърли) the defence attorney’s objection (възражение) and told me to proceed.

2. Maria Gonzalez, 52, is charged (обвинен, а, о, и) with grand larceny (theft of personal property), fraud and possession of stolen property.

3. The jury is going to weight aggravating (отежняващ) versus mitigating (смекчаващ) factors, and determine if the aggravating factors outweigh (тежа повече от, надделявам) the mitigating factors.

4. The Court of Appeals (Апелативен съд) reversed (давам заден ход на, връщам) the ruling of the district court (Окръжен съд).

5. The Fifth Amendment gives you the right to remain silent, the right not to incriminate (правя да изглеждам виновен) yourself.

6. Cases were dismissed (отхвърлен, а, о, и) when the judge found the charges unsubstantiated (недоказан).

7. With the country’s moral reputation at stake (в залог) Swiss justice officials say they will mete out (раздавам, правораздавам) harsh punishment (грубо, тежко наказание) to any bank found dealing in Mobutu’s money.

8. The prosecutors (прокурори, ищци) believed that Cindy George somehow had masterminded (планирам) the murder plot (заговор за убийство), but they didn’t have any evidence (доказателство) to charge her.

9. Though briefly he considered an insanity (безумие) defence, he ultimately pleaded (пледира) guilty to solicitation (настояване, ходатайство) to commit (въвличам, заангажирам) first-degree murder and trafficking in cocaine.

10. Ten months later Matt and Jennifer were formally sentenced (осъден) to life in prison without the possibility of parole (без право на обжалване).

11. Bell has previous offences, and if convicted (осъден) of the cocaine-sales charges, he could be sentenced to 19 years in prison.

12. I don’t think there’s a jury in the world that would acquit (оправдавам, уреждам) these criminals.

13. The man was sentenced to death and was only reprieved (помилван) on grounds of insanity (безумие), after a massive international campaign. 

14. Those who argue the other side, that immigration must be curtailed and the border secured, say that it is unprincipled to aid and abet (подстрекавам) those who have entered the US illegally. 

7. Criminals and wrongdoers and their definitions

Kingpin (важна клечка)
The most important person or element in an enterprise or system
Mugger (крадец на публично място)
s.o. who attacks people in the street to steel their money or other possessions
Forger (фалшификатор)
s.o. who makes fake documents or money
Imposter (измамник)
s.o. who deceives people by pretending to be someone else
Accessory (съучастник)
An associate (сътрудник) in wrongdoing (злосторничество)
Ringleader (тартор, подстрекател)
s.o. who leads others, especially in illicit (незаконен, непозволен) or informal activities
Shoplifter (купувач, който краде от магазин)
s.o. who takes goods from shops without paying for them
Pickpocket (джебчия)
s.o. who steals from the pockets or handbags of others in public places
Assassin (наемен убиец)
A professional killer
Hitman (професионален убиец)
s.o who murders an important person (usually a politician)
Accomplice (съучастник)
s.o. who incites someone to commit a crime or assist the perpetrator, either before or during the act
Poacher (бракониер)
s.o. who catches or shoots birds or game without permission


8. Completing the sentences using the following nouns

1. He is nothing but an imposter (измамник), a commoner’s son impersonating royalty.

2. Home detention has become a popular alternative to prison terms for many convicted nonviolent (ненасилствен, а, о, и) offenders (правонарушители).

3. I have been accused of obstruction of justice, planting evidence, and being an accessory (съучастник, помагач) to murder, I can never return to Italy.

4. Stan Patz took matters into his own hands, to try to keep a known child molester (насилник) away from other parents’ children.

5. A child, as defined in law, generally refers to a minor (непълнолетен, незначителен), a person younger than the age of majority (пълнолетие).

6. A 101-year-old woman on her way to church is accosted by a mugger (крадец на улицата), who wants her purse.

7. Mumbai’s harbor, the main port of entry into India’s commercial and financial hub, is essentially under the control of Dawood Ibrahim, an organized-crime kingpin (голяма клечка).

8. Veteran defence attorney (защитник) Charles Rominger would be attacking the weaknesses in the people’s case.

9. Wendy was an unwitting (несъзнаващ) accomplice (съучастник) to her own father’s murder.

10. The project aims at encouraging law-abiding behaviour among juvenile (непълнолетен, младежки) delinquent (престъпник).

11. What happens to an inmate (затворник) if the crime for which he was convicted ends up being legalized while he’s still in jail?

12. Rocky would call the coroner (следовател) the next day and ask for a thorough and full examination (изследване) of Rosie’s body.

13. This case held that harm to the plaintiff (ищец) can include “feelings of inferiority (чувство на малоценност) as to their status in the community.

14. I naively believed that if forensic evidence (съдебномедицински доказателства) existed that could contain the DNA of a perpetrator (извършител, виновник) of a crime, then it would be tested before a person was executed.

15. The defence expert offered the most compelling evidence (убедителни доказателства) against the defendant (ответник, обвиняем).

16. A convicted felon (разбойник, углавен престъпник), he could go to prison just for owning a gun.

17. Because the statute of limitations has run out on all federal and most local charges, prosecutors (прокурорите) will have few options in using whatever material federal investigators might bring to them.

18. Relatives of the three victims sued the publisher of Hit Man, Peder Lund, claiming him to be an accessory (съучастник) to the murders, who aided and abetted the crime.

9. Completing the sentences using derivatives of allege (твърдя, заявявам, оправдавам се), indict (подвеждам под отговорност) or punish (наказвам)

1. The witness (свидетел, свидетелство, свидетелски показания) has testified to sleeping soundly at the time of these alleged (предполагаем) incidents (инцидент, случай).

2. He faces a weapons possession charge for allegedly (както се твърди, уж) carrying a Jennings 22-caliber pistol (пистолет).

3. I’m a therapist. I refuse to be a punisher (правораздаващ). You cannot punish (наказвам) and treat someone at the same time.

4. Another charge relates to allegations (твърдения, заявления) that he stole a 34-foot boat in Ilwaco, Washington.

5. The 19-year-old gained notoriety for allegedly (както се твърди) stealing planes and boats.

6. Four of the counts are punishable (наказуеми) by up to 10 years in prison.

7. A grand jury has indicted (обвинен) a former senior National Security Agency official on charges of providing classified information to a newspaper.

8. There are many people who are cited in the indictment (обвинителен акт, обвинение) without names, only initials and numbers.

9. There is no question today that deliberate infliction (умишлено причиняване) of pain as punishment (наказание, наказване) is unconstitutional.

10. Until each statement is proved it is only an allegation (заявление, твърдение).

11. He made no excuses and seemed prepared to accept any punishment (наказание) that I might mete out without complaint.

10. Studying the following synonyms and use them to complete the sentences

1. Allege (твърдя, представям като оправдание) – to assert without or before proof; to put forward (an argument or plea) for or against an accusation or claim

2. Affirm (твърдя, утвърждавам, потвърждавам) – to declare positively or firmly; to maintain to be true; to support or uphold the validity of (it indicates firm belief or unshakable conviction)

3. Assert (твърдя, отстоявам, заявявам, предявявам) – to state or express positively; to state categorically to defend or maintain

4. Attest (заверявам, удостоверявам валидността на) – to affirm to be correct, true, or genuine; to certify by signature or oath; to be evidence of; to stand as proof of (used with the preposition to)

5. Claim (претендирам, твърдя, изисквам) – to demand as being due or as one’s property; to assert one’s title or right to; to call for or need; to deserve

6. Declare (заявявам, обявявам) – to state emphatically or authoritatively; to make something public

7. Maintain (твърдя, държа, запазвам, отстоявам) – to assert something in the face of evidence or arguments to the contrary (it almost always involves controversy or disagreement)

8. Plead (умолявам, пледирам, защитавам в съда, отговарям на обвинение, обръщам се към съда) – to offer reasons for or against something; to ague earnestly; to appeal or request earnestly; to assert as defence, vindication (реабилитиране, оправдание), or excuse

9. Testify (свидетелствам, давам показания) – to bear witness as in a court of law; to declare solemnly (тържествено) to be true (used with the preposition to)

11. Meaning of the phrasal verbs with come

1. Come about (случвам се, появявам се) – occur, happen

2. Come by (сдибивам) – acquire, get, receive

3. Come by (наминавам) – pay a short visit

4. Come along (помъквам, запътвам) – make progress, advance towards a goal

5. Come across (срещам случайно, натъквам се на) – to meet or find by chance

6. Come around – change one’s opinion or position

7. Come off (отлепвам се, откъртвам се) – turn out to be successful

8. Come out (излизам, излизам наяве) – be issued or published

9. Come to (достигам до положение да) – recover consciousness

10. Come into (влизам във владение на) – inherit (наследявам, получавам наследство)

11. Come up with produce, create; propose

12. Colloquial idiomatic expressions

1. William Hundley rose to prominence as the prosecutor who persuaded Joe Valachi to blow the whistle on (to show to the public dangerous conditions or illegal activities, [бия тъпана за]) the Mob.

2. I will go straight (to stop breaking the law and lead a lawful life instead [вървя в пътя])

3. He did a bunk (A place for sleeping), out of the bedroom window, when his parents came home unexpectedly.

4. Otto cut a deal. He’d take the rap (опирам пешкира) if his wife and son got suspended sentences and promised to leave town.

5. The man hired a good lawyer and was able to beat the rap (to avoid being punished) easily.

6. The marauders (мародери) hold to ransom (to force someone to do something by putting them in a situation where something bad will happen to them if they do) several coastal towns.

7. When Mimi asks where he got it, he says “Like I said, it fell off the back of a lorry (Of goods or merchandise, to be acquired by illegal or dubious means; to come into (someone's) possession without being paid for. Primarily heard in UK.)!”

8. Drug barons were greasing the palm (to give someone money to persuade them to do what you want) of the chief of police.

9. The first investigation in 1993 was derailed when the child’s family pocketed a reported $20 million in hush money (money paid as a bribe to persuade someone to remain silent and not reveal certain information).

10. First of all you have to case the joint (to look over some place to figure out how to break in, what to steal, etc.) to see where things are before attempting anything.

11. A mob defector named Frank Fappiano coolly recounted life in the brutish (скотски) and trigger-happy (горящ от желание да започне бой) Gambino crime family.

12. The soft drinks in the cinema are really expensive. I paid 10 dollars for a cola. It’s highway robbery (пладнешки обир)!

13. Idiomatic expressions

1. The judge came down hard on (to criticize someone or something) the boy who had been arrested for breaking into a house.

2. While it once seemed Mel Ignatow would get away scot-free (to avoid the punishment that you deserve or expect) with murder, prosecutors can take some measure of relief knowing a dangerous killer is behind bars, at least for now.

3. The girl got a tongue-lashing (If you give someone a tongue-lashing, you speak angrily to that person about something that they have done wrong [четене на конско]) from the judge over her role in the crime.

4. The case was cut-and-dried (Prepared and arranged in advance; settled) and it ended in less than one hour.

5. The boy got a slap on the wrist (to get a light punishment for doing something wrong) for causing the damage to the public washroom (умивалня, обществена тоалетна).

6. The court clerks always go by the book (to do something exactly as the rules tell you [като по устав, по учебник]) when they are dealing with court matters (съдебни дела).

7. The criminal was not sorry for his crime, so the judge decided to throw the book at (to charge or convict someone with as many crimes as is possible) him.

8. The future of the criminal was hanging in the balance (to depend on something for success or continued existence [вися на косъм, в критично положение съм]) as he waited for the judge’s decision.

9. The argument which the lawyer presented did not hold water (not able to be proved; not correct or true).

10. The experienced lawyer found it very easy to pick holes in (to find mistakes in something someone has done or said) the argument of the main witness.

11. The jury is still out on (a decision has not been reached on someone or something; the people making the decision on someone or something have not yet decided) whether or not we will move.

12. The trial ended in a hung jury (A jury that is unable to reach a verdict because its members are unable to reach unanimous agreement (as in criminal cases) or the extent of agreement required by law (as in civil cases).) which made another trial necessary.

14. Completing the text using the following words

Elder abuse has become a growing problem nationwide (цялата страна). The government estimates that between one and two million Americans over the age of 65 have been injured or mistreated (малтретиран) by caregivers (болногледачи).

This November the state closed the Orchard Court Nursing Home for failing to comply (спазвам, съгласявам се) with safety regulations. The state may potentially revoke (отменям, отнемам) the licenses of six other long-term care facilities.

The true scope (обхват) of nursing (кърмене) home abuse is difficult to grasp (разбирам, схващам) because of underreporting (несъобщаване). Elderly victims often do not communicate the suffering they experience. For some older individuals this is a result of diminished (намален, снижен) capacity or intimidation from the caregiver responsible. Others are ashamed about what happened and embarrassed to discuss it with family. It is important that family members remain actively involved in a loved one’s care so they can be alert (сигнализирани) for signs of neglect (небрежност) or abuse (злоупотреба).

It is difficult to imagine a caregiver physically harming a vulnerable (уязвим) adult, but unfortunately this type of abuse happens all too often. Neglect often occurs because of understaffed (с недостатъчен персонал) facilities or a lack of proper training for caregivers. Many individuals in nursing homes require around-the-clock (денонощен) attention. The demands of this care, in combination with lack of training and short-staffed facilities, may result in neglect. Unfortunately, sometimes neglect may also be more willful (преднамерен, своенравен).

In addition to recognizing physical types of abuse and neglect it is important to also watch for signs of emotional abuse in elderly loved ones. Emotional abuse can take several forms. These include verbal assaults (нападение, физическо насилие), insults (обиди), threats intimidation (сплашване) or harassment (измъчване, дразнене). Emotional abuse may not result in physical damage to the body, but the harm from words alone can be significant. Signs of emotional abuse include withdrawal (оттегляне) from activities, strange behavior such as repetitive (повтарящ се) rocking, depression or low self-esteem and involuntary (принудителен) seclusion (усамотение).

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