1. General glossary

1. permafrost (n.) – вечен лед (замръзналост)
2. thaw (n.) – размразяване, топене; v. топя, разтопявам
3. bluff (n.) – отвесна скала, заблуждаване, блъф
4. sketch out (v.) – скицирам
5. debris (n.) – отломки, остатъци
6. glacier (n.) – ледник, глетчер
7. frigid (adj.) – студен, мразовит, фригидна
8. silt (n.) – тиня, нанос
9. lowland (n.) – низина
10. decompose (v.) – разлагам, анализирам
11. extensive (adj.) – обширен, широк, екстензивен
12. ice sheet (phr.) – леден пласт (шапка)  
13. contrarian (n.) – противоречащ
14. contend (v.) – споря
15. cite (v.) – цитирам
16. wipe out (v.) – ликвидирам, унищожавам
17. breakdown (n.) – повреда, авария, грохване
18. fossil fuel (n.) – изкопаемо гориво
19. borehole (n.) – сондаж
20. relentless (adj.) – безмилостен, непреклонен
21. hover (v.) – кръжа, нося се, въртя се
22. data center (phr.) – център за данни  
23. moss (n.) - мъх
24. damp (n.) – влага, влажност
25. sediment (n.) – утайка
26. peat (n.) - торф
27. fingerprint (n.) – пръстов отпечатък
28. disruption (n.) – разпадане, разрив, дезинтеграция
29. promontory (n.) – нос, издутина, подутина
30. hindmost (adj.) – най-последен, най-заден
31. outburst (n.) – изблик, избухване
32. tumult (n.) – вълнение, метеж
33. garbage dump (phr.) - депо за отпадъци
34. crude oil (phr.) - суров петрол
35. landfill (n.) - сметище
36. garbage bin (phr.) - кошче за боклук
37. unfathomable (adj.) - необясним, неизмерим
38. downside (n.) - недостатък, отрицателна страна
39. ramification (n.) - разклонение, усложнение 
40. biodiversity (n.) - биоразнообразие
41. ore (n.) - руда
42. dumping (n.) - разтоварване, стоварване
43. runoff (n.) - отичане, балотаж
44. depletion (n.) - изчерпване, намаляване

2. Describing the following words

bluff (отвесна скала) - a steep cliff, bank or promontory

debris (отломки, късове) - scattered pieces of rubbish or remains

frigid (студен, мразовит, безразличен) - extremely cold (of weather conditions)

decompose (разлагам, разнищвам, гния) - to make or become rotten, to decay

extensive (обширен, широк) - covering a large area; large in amount or scale

tail (опашка, край, заден край) - the final or hindmost part of something

claim (претенция, иск, твърдение) - to state something is true or is a fact

mainstream (преобладаващ, моден) - belonging to or characteristic of a principal, dominant, or widely accepted group, movement, style, etc

relentless (безмилостен, непреклонен) - unyieldingly severe, strict, or harsh

hover (кръжа, нося се, въртя се) - to remain at or near a particular level

aftermath (последици) - the consequences of a significant unpleasant event

nutrients (хранителни вещества) - any substance which plants or animals need in order to live and grow

disruption (разпадане, разрив) - a disorderly outburst or tumult   

3. Expressions

1. to absorb heat /sound greenhouse (парник, зимна градина) gases

2.  to bury (заравям, заривам) the dead/one’s mind in reverie (блян, мечти)

3. to disrupt (разстройвам, разрушавам) balance/ecosystems/production/economic growth

4. to emit greenhouse gases/sound/heat/electrical sparks

5. to release an accident report/heat/greenhouse gases/a tax return

6. to spur (пришпорвам, подтиквам) production/economic growth

7. to strike a deal/a balance/the ball

4. Studying the following words

A. raise (вдигам, повдигам), arise (възниквам, ставам, издигам се), rise (ставам, изправям се, издигам се), arouse (събуждам, будя)
1. Their ridicule (присмех) would naturally appear to him to arise from envy (завист).
2. By degrees they let him know that doubts have arisen, that inquiries (проучвания, разследвания) are to be made, and perhaps he may be pardoned after all.
3. The sight (поглед, гледка, зрение) of two policemen hurrying toward them from the direction of the canal aroused her.
4. The next moment she beheld a grey-haired old man, bowed by heavy toil (тежка работа, трепане), raise his fist (юмрук, пестник) against Moses.
5. At last she was about to rise and take him to his room, but hearing noises in the street she stepped to the window.

B. occur (ставам, случвам се, идва ми на ум, настъпвам), recur (изниквам отново, случвам се пак), concur (съответствам, съвпадам), incur (излагам се, навличам си, понасям, спечелвам си)
1. German and Italian officials concurred in October after meeting with Pentagon officials.
2. Improved survey results can also help overcome the reputational damage Toyota incurred two years ago.
3. Catastrophic declines have already occurred in some places, usually as a result of climate change combined with human activity like the dumping of sewage.
4. These are not occasional, but constantly recurring characteristics of his style.

C. strike (стачкувам, стачка), struck (поразен), stricken (пострадал, връхлетян, задраскан), stroke (удар, щрих, погалване, тънка линия)
1. Nora was somewhat conscience stricken as she accepted the peace offering.
2. His right hand touched and stroked her hair.
3. The silvery bell had tolled its eight strokes and was dying away, when a cab dashing past the door suddenly pulled up.
4. Other people who had been boring for oil also struck gas, which, taking fire, shot up twenty or thirty heet.
5. Autism disorders strike one in 100 children, according to U.S. government estimates.
6. Castro, who ruled Cuba for 49 years, was struck by an undisclosed intestinal illness that nearly killed him in July 2006.

D. plane (равнина, плоскост, самолет; равнинен, плосък), plain (равнина, поле; обикновен, ясен, прост, разбираем)
1. Clarke, who had gone forward in hopes of finding game, came suddenly upon a beautiful open plain partially stocked with pine.
2. Here there are two pairs of vertical planes of symmetry intersecting in the tetrad axis.
3. In the room there was already a detective in plain clothes (цивилни дрехи).  

5. Studying the verbal meanings of the  following words and completing the following sentences

dust (v. напрашвам, бърша прах; n. прах, смет)
ice (v. заледявам, глазирам; n. лед, ледове, диаманти, захарна глазура)
weather (v. суша, проветрявам, руша се от атмосферни влияния; n. време)
spring (v. скачам, подскачам; n. пролет, пружина, извор, ресор)
storm (v. щурмувам, бушувам, беснея; n. буря, ураган, бурен изблик)
tide (v. оправям, улеснявам; n. сезон, течение, поток)
cloud (v. заоблачавам се, затъмнявам; n. облак, сянка)
thunder (v. гърмя, трещя, бумтя, говоря гръмогласно; n. гръм, гръмотевица)

1. Democrats seem prepared to dust off California’s impeachment process, which hasn’t been used in nearly a century.

2. He mopped the kitchen floor, vacuumed and dusted all the rooms in the house.

3. Her thinking was clouded by both fear and desire.

4. Their arguments now grew more volatile (летлив, променлив, непостоянен), clouded by personal issues.

5. The snow iced over the roof, and trimmed the doors and windows with icicles (ледени висулки) as long as candy canes.

6. Don’t forget to dust the cake with sugar.

7. The plane was delayed because the engine had iced up.

8. Unlike humans who need coffee to spring into action, birds are motivated by sunlight.

9. Thousands of new businesses have sprung up in the past couple of years.

10. The man stormed out of the house, slamming the door as he went.

11. In the most violent clash, three Kurds were killed and fifteen injured when they tried to storm the Israeli consulate in Berlin.

12. Miss Mason would like some yogurt to tide her over until lunch but it has to be nonfat (обезмаслен).

13. The train thundered past, shaking the whole house.

14. A series of explosions have thundered across Iraq.  

15. Avoid lending money, so you’ll be able to weather a layoff (безработица, съкращения) or relocation if necessary.

16. Danton frowned, deepening the wrinkles on his heavily weathered face.

6. Completing the sentences using the words below in the right form

afforestation (n. залесяване)
deforestation (n. обезлесяване)
droughts (n. засушавания)
landslides (n. свлачища)
acid rain (n. киселинен дъжд)
animal welfare (phr. хуманното отношение към животните)
oil rigs (n. нефтени платформи)
oil slick (n. петролен разлив)
tidal wave (n. огромна океанска вълна, прилив на ентусиазъм)
radioactive fallout (phr. радиоактивно замърсяване)

1. At least 40 other people are missing, many of them buried by landslides after the lunchtime-quake dislodged large slabs (плочи) of earth.

2. According to scientists, afforestation can restore ecosystem function only if the right species are planted in the right place.

3. Emissions from coal-fired plants have been implicated in respiratory illness, acid rain and, most recently, climate change.

4. Global warming, climate change, deforestation, human development and human overpopulation are putting the lives of all wild animals in grave danger.

5. The tidal wave was receding, but the waters underneath were black and unfathomable (необясним, неразгадаем).

6. In southern China, droughts in recent years have replaced rainy seasons, drying up rice paddies on a large scale.

7. A leaking tank from a sunken ship has caused an oil slick off India’s western coast.

8. Security researchers have repeatedly pointed to gaping holes in the way industrial systems are protected, including those that handle oil rigs and power grids.

9. As the debate over practices in abattoirs continues, one of the world’s leading thinkers on animal welfare and food ethics is visiting Australia.

10. Many Germans have been vehemently (яростно) opposed to nuclear power since Chernobyl sent radioactive fallout over the country. 

7. Completing the sentences using the words below

arid (сух, безплоден)
abundant (изобилен)
barrenness (безплодие)
capped (таван на нещо)
deserts (пустини)
erosion (разяждане, подмиване)
eucalyptus (евкалипт)
extinct (изгаснал, изчезнал)
flat (равнина, апартамент, плосък, равен)
fleeting (краткотраен преходен)
landscapes (пейзажи)
level (ниво, равнище)
precipitation (утаяване, отлагане)
lush (тучен, сочен)
plains (равнини)
rainforests (гори)
reefs (рифове)
speck (петънце, зрънце, дребно нещо)
strip (лента, ивица)
wake (килватер, събуждам, бдение нада мъртвец)
weathering (последствия от ерозията)

To the ancient land mass that is the continent of Australia, the 200-year period of western civilization is but a mere (обикновен, чист, истински) speck in time, a fleeting moment in a history of 200 million years, during which oceans and lakes once filled the arid interior and long-extinct volcanoes and earthquakes helped shape the land. The last major land movement, which raised the entire eastern coastal strip, occurred more than two million years ago. Only about 20 000 years ago did the vast deserts of the centre, once covered by lush vegetation (буйна растителност), and the home of dinosaurs, begin to dry out.

For longer than any other continent, the Australian land mass has remained almost stable. The forces of erosion and weathering have been left to continue their work uninterrupted, by smoothing out the mountains and leaving in their wake the flattest and driest country on earth. Only five per cent of the land rises to more than 600 metres above sea level (морско равнище), and none is above the permanent snow line. It is mostly characterized by low-lying plains and flat-topped plateaus. Rivers are few because the worn mountains have led to a lack of precipitation.

But in spite of its apparent barrenness, Australia contains any number of stunning landscapes, particularly in the Great Dividing Range (Голяма вододелна планинска верига), which extends from the tropical rainforests (тропическите гори) of northern Queensland, through eucalyptus bushland, to snow-capped mountains in the south and Tasmania. Elsewhere the Great Barrier Reef stretches south from Papua New Guinea for 2000 kilometres; a tropical paradise of islands and coral reefs, supporting an abundant and complex sea life.  

8. Putting the following words in 4 groups

Aquatic plants (водни растения)
Coniferous trees (иглолистни дървета)
Deciduous trees (широколистни дървета)
Annuals and perennials (едногодишни и многогодишни растения)
algae - водорасли
cedar - кедър
ash - ясен
corn - царевица
lotus - лотус
cypress - кипарис
birch - бреза
mintмента, джоджен
water-lilyводна лилия
fir - ела
beech - бук
petunia - петуния

pineбор, чам
еlm - бряст
sageградински чай

spruce - смърч
linden - липа
thyme - мащерка

yew - тис
mapleклен, явор
tomato - домат

oak - дъб

poplar - топола

willow - върба

9. Flowers and birds

carnation (карамфил)
blackbird (кос)
clover (детелина)
owl (бухал)
daisy (маргаритка)
pigeon (гълъб)
chrysanthemum (хризантема)
starling ()
dandelion (глухарче)
woodpecker (скорец)
fuchsia (обичка)
chaffinch (чинка)
hyacinth (зюмбюл)
magpie (сврака)
marigold (невен)
robin (червеношийка)
orchid (орхидея)
swallow (лястовица)
pansy (трицветна теменуга)
falcon (сокол)
poppy (мак)
nightjar (козодой)
thistle (магарешки бодил)
sparrow (врабче)

vulture (лешояд)

10. Completing the sentences using the words below

amphibians (земноводни)
carnivores (месоядни)
herbivores (тревопасни)
invertebrates (безгръбначни)
marsupials (торбести, двуутробни)
omnivores (всеядни)
predators (хищници)
reptiles (влечуги)
gestation (бременност)
bats (прилепи)
tortoises (костенурки)
turtles (морска костенурка)
rodents (гризачи)
kangaroos (кенгура)
nutrients (хранителни вещества)
matriarchal (матриархат)
nocturnal (нощен)
canine (животно от семейство кучета)
feline (животно от семейство котки)
mole (къртица)
herd (стадо)
ferrets (порове)

1. Herbivores form an important link in the food chain as they consume plants in order to receive the carbohydrates (въглехидрати) produced by a plant from photosynthesis. Carnivores in turn consume herbivores for the same reason, while omnivores can obtain their nutrients from either plants or animals.

2.  Most reptiles are active predators. Lizards hunt mainly insects. Snakes target prey such as rodents and birds. Some snake subdue (подчинявам, укротявам) their victims with venom (отрова). Crocodiles prey on creatures as large as wildebeest (гну). Invertebrates and terrapins (водни костенурки) eat mainly fish and turtles. Tortoises, which live on land, feed mostly on plants.

3. Marsupials are the group of mammals commonly thought of as pouched mammals. They give live birth, but they do not have long gestation. They range from small four-footed forms like the marsupial mole to the large two-legged kangaroos.

4. Pet owners dote on their feline and canine “children” with deluxe hotel suites, wading pools, and in-home grooming services.

5. Amphibians, living both in water and on land and breathing through their skin, are often important in food chains ranging from fish to birds.

6. Nocturnal creatures generally have highly developed senses of hearing and smell, and specially adapted eyesight. Some animals, such as cats and ferrets, have eyes that can adapt to both low-level and bright day levels of illumination (осветляване). Others, such as bats can function only at night.

7. Elephant herds are matriarchal. Mostly, a dominant female will stay the leader of the group until she dies, when her oldest daughter will take over. As the males get older, they are forced out of the herd, but females stay in the same group for all their lives.

11. Different groups of animals

1. a brood of chickensлюпило пилета

2. a litter of kittens, pigsкотило, прасило

3. a colony of ants, bees, penguins, gulls, termites колония от мравки

4. a flight of birds, swallows ято птици, лястовици

5. a flock of sheep, birds, goats стадо овце

6. a gaggle of geese ято гъски

7. a herd of elephants, cattle, goats стадо слонове, говеда

8. a pack of wolves, dogs глутница вълци, кучета

9. a parliament of owls -  гнездо

10. a plague of locusts напаст от скакалци

11. a prickle of porcupines кълбо таралежи

12. a pride of lions стадо лъвове

13. a school of fish, dolphins, whales пасаж риба

14. a swarm of ants, bees, locusts рояк мравки, пчели

15. a troop of kangaroos, monkeys стадо кенгура, маймуни

12. Information about animal homes, their young ones and the sounds animals make

Young one
chirp, twitter
bark, yelp
baby elephant
den (леговище)
burrow (дупка в земята)
pen (кошара)
sty (кочина)

Резултат с изображение за animals vocabulary

Резултат с изображение за animals vocabulary
Резултат с изображение за animals vocabulary

Резултат с изображение за animals vocabulary

13. Completing the sentences using the words below

bellow (мучене, муча)
buzz (жужа)
cackle (кудкудякам)
chirp (чуруликам)
croak (грача)
crow (кукуригам)
squeak (писукам, цвърча)
low (муча)
drone (бръмча, търтей)
gobble (крякам, крякане)
hoot (бухам, викам „ууу“)
howl (вой)
scream (писък, крясък)

1. I had an unforgettable experience when I heard a turkey gobble across a canyon with sheer (adj. отвесен, чист, фин; n. отклонение от курса ) cliff walls on each side.

2. Suddenly the little boy began to flap his arms and crow like a rooster (петел, фукльо).

3. As they crested the hill, they heard frantic (неистов) lowing from one cow and an answering bellow from another.

4. Somewhere in the surrounding trees, an owl hooted softly (полека, нежно).

5. The eerie (зловещ, тайнствен) chirping of crickets (щурци) echoed around her mournfully (печално).

6. The mosquitoes droned their angry chant (песнопение).

7. The wind howled like twenty wolves across the thickest ice Red Lake had ever seen.

8. Sometimes, Olivia would walk out to the edge of the cliff and watch the tide (течение, поток), listening to the seagulls scream as they plummeted for clams (миди, мълчалив човек).

9. The light was hot. Frogs stopped croaking and insects stopped buzzing.

10. The light fell across the piles of corn. Mice squeaked and scurried in all directions, bumping into one another in their haste (бързане, припряност) to get away from the light.

11. Mike opened the barn door. Inside, the geese began cackling loudly.

14. Completing the sentences with an appropriate word

Extinction (измиране, погасяване) is the disappearance, brought about (причинявам, довеждам до) by natural or unnatural means, of an entire species. Some species of plants and animals die out (отмирам) naturally because newer species are more successful at competing for food and living space (жизнено пространство). Others have become extinct because of changes in the planet of because on natural disasters (природни бедствия). Dinosaurs, for example, may have died out because the climate became cooler – maybe because an asteroid collided with the earth and caused a big cloud of dust that blocked out the sun.

In today’s world, however, species mostly are threatened with extinction because of humans. Humans hunt animals, destroy their habitat (естествена среда) and introduce other animals that prey upon the endangered plants and animals habitat destruction (унищожаване, разрушаване).

15. Completing the sentences with an appropriate word

Scientists now have evidence that changes are occurring in the Gulf Stream, the warm and powerful ocean current that tempers the western European climate. Without the influence of the Gulf Stream and its two northern branches, the North Atlantic Drift and the Canary Current, the weather in Britain could be more like that of Siberia, which shares the same latitude (географска ширина).

Cambridge University ocean physics professor Peter Wadhams points to changes in the waters of the Greenland Sea. Historically, large columns of very cold, dense water in the Greenland Sea, known as “chimneys”, sink from the surface of the ocean to about 9000 feet below to the seabed (морско дъно). As that water goes down, it interacts with the warm Gulf Stream current flowing from the south.  But Wadhams says the number of these “chimneys” has dropped from about a dozen to just two. That is causing a weakening of the Gulf Stream , which could mean less heat reaching northern Europe. The activity in the Greenland Sea is part of a global pattern of ocean movement, known as thermohaline circulation or more commonly the “global conveyor belt” (глобална транспортна лента).

Wadhams and other scientists say the slowing of the Gulf Stream could contribute to other severe effects on the planet, such as the complete melting of the Arctic ice cap in the summer months. That could eliminate the habitat and lead to the extinction of Arctic wildlife, including the polar bear. Current predictions indicate that could happen as early as 2020 or as late as 2080. Scientists also report changes in where and when certain species of fish have been found, and in populations of seals and polar bears.

For a dramatic climate change to take place, a whole bunch of pieces have to fit together. Certainly this is one of them. We need to keep paying attention, and people are doing that.

16. Studying the following synonyms and use them to complete the sentences that follow

Moist (влажен) – slightly wet, often in a way that is pleasant or useful: a lovely rich moist cake.  

Damp (влажен; влага, влажност) – slightly wet, often in a way that is unpleasant: the cottage (къщичка) was cold and damp.  

Humid (влажен)warm and damp (of the air and climate): the island is hot and humid in the summer.

Dank (усоен)damp, cold and unpleasant: a dark dank cave.

Soaked (подгизнал, пиян-залян)very wet (rather informal): he is soaked through (completely wet)

Drenched (подгизнал, облян)very wet: they came home drenched to the skin.

USAGE NOTE: soaked or drenched
Both words can be used figuratively with the prepositions with or in: soaked/drenched with/in sweat. Soaked but usually not drenched can be used before a noun: his soaked clothes.

1. They used the paddles (гребло, бъркалка) to press air bubbles out of the clay (глина, пръст) while it was still damp.

2. The moist, aromatic meat is shredded and sprinkled with finely chopped summer herbs and greens (зеленчуци).

3. Suddenly his eyes began to grow moist and tears were hanging on the lashes (мигли).

4. The fragile watercolors (акварели) cannot withstand moisture (влага, влажност), strong sun or any hard knocks.

5. A cold wind swept over the plain, but he gave no thought to its possible effect, striking through his damp/soaked clothes.

6. Police crime scene investigator (следовател) John Paggart described the basement rooms (мазета) as “cold, dark, damp”.

7. The faint (слаб, блед) drizzle (ситен дъжд) had ceased, but there was dampness in the mist (лека мъгла, мъглявина) that moistened his face as with spray.

8. Irrigation is not essential for tomato production in humid climates and is seldom (adv. рядко) provided except under market garden conditions.

9. Air temperature is obviously a main factor, however, humidity plays a large role as well.

10. Avila now dwells in a dank prison cell where she complains about bad food and cockroaches (хлебарки).

11. The space is airy and drenched/soaked in natural light that pours through large windows.

12. On Thursday night they slept in soaking blankets, inches deep in rain and mud.

13. She had entered the damp/dank cave chamber in a thin summer gown (тога, мантия), and it now seemed to be continually growing colder and colder.

14. A moist spring air came in through the open windows, and the candles flickered.

15. The company provides state-of-the-art equipment and has over 30 years of experience in the field of humidity control for multiple industries.  

16. Phrasal verbs meaning

1. turn over (прекатурвам се) – to bring the reverse side up

2. turn down (свалям, намалявам) – to reject, to diminish the intensity

3. turn up (повдигам нагоре, запретвам ръкави) – to arrive; to increase the intensity; to happen, especially by chance

4. turn in (предавам обратно, предавам на полицията) – to submit (предоставям) something, to surrender someone to the authorities

5. turn on (нахвърлям се върху) – to attack or criticize, to surrender someone to the authorities

6. turn out (изработвам) – to produce or make something, often quickly or in large amounts

7. turn away (отпращам, извръщам) – to refuse to allow somebody to enter a place

8. turn s.o. off (отвращавам) – to make somebody have a feeling of disgust

9. turn out (излизам, ставам) – to be present at an event

10. turn in (постигам) – to achieve a score, performance, profit, etc.

11. turn out of (изгонвам) – to force somebody to leave a place; to evict

12. turn against (настройвам против) – to change one’s attitude so as to become hostile or to retaliate

13. turn off (затварям, превъртам) – to stop the flow of (water, gas, etc.), as by closing a faucet or valve.


Turn against one’s own parents/the regime
Turn around a failing business/ a badly performing department
Turn away one’s face / a friend / people
Turn back the clock / time
Turn down a job / a resignation / the music / the lights
Turn in profits / weapons / a resignation
Turn off the motorway / the music / the iron / the lights
Turn out thousands of games / the light’s / one’s pockets
Turn over a new leaf
Turn to drugs / a friend / people
Turn up the music / new evidence

17. Studying the following nouns and completing the sentences

turnabout (нелоялност, обрат)
turnaround (ренегатство)
turndown (спад, отказана стока)
turnover (оборот, кръгообращение)
turnout (разклон, гласували избиратели,  излезли на стачка работници)
turnoff (уволнявам, изключвам)

1. India learned that “workforce education” actually increases productivity, decreases turnover, and leads to greater economic growth.

2. When turnover falls, companies have two choices – cut costs or go in search of new income to recoup (компенсирам, обезщетявам) their losses.

3. In past elections, a high turnabout has usually favored the opposition due to younger constituents (избирател) showing up to the polls.

4. A tough stance (твърда позиция) on immigration can be a turnoff to liberal supporters.

5. There were two tiny buttered biscuits, two very small apple turnovers, and two little frosted cakes.

6. Lighter transportation demands would mean more environmental benefits and a faster turnaround time, not to mention reduced shipping costs.

7. Even experienced commuters can be flustered (объркан) by such a complex traffic pattern; with all the stoplights and turnoffs, it’s easy to miss your turn.

8. Drought and 1995’s cotton crop failure triggered a dramatic turnabout in planting patterns for the people in Texas.

9. Before the company turnaround began, the airline industry was hit by a price war and a giant jump in the price of oil as a result of the Gulf War.

10. Given the unanimous (единодушен) turndown the parliament gave to the plan just nine days ago, Milosevic had good reason for his uncertainty.

18. Completing the colloquial similes (разговорни сравнения) used in the sentences

1. The little boy had come downstairs as meek (кротък, смирен) as a lamb (агне, овчица) and begged his father’s forgiveness (прошка).

2. I may be as blind as a bat but I have the memory of an elephant.

3. They both know she is as poor as a church mouse now that she has left her husband.

4. Robert offered himself as a guinea pig for certain tests involving glands and connective tissue (съединителна тъкан).

5. Their patient was young, in his early thirties, and as stubborn (крайно упорит, инат) as a mule (муле, катър) from the looks of him.

6. I don’t have time to talk to you. I’m a busy as a beaver (бобър) with the work on the new project.

7. Scott McNealy knows that if you’re running ahead of the pack (глутница, пакет, вързоп), you have to dodge (хитрувам, клинча, избягвам) the arrows aimed at your back.

8. I’m always as gruff (сърдит, груб) as a bear before I’ve had my first cup of coffee.

9. Tom will never be a gymnast; he’s as awkward (непохватен) as a cow on roller skates (ролкови кънки).

10. Ever since he won that award; he’s been as conceited as a barber’s cat.

11. The athlete was strong as an ox (говедо, вол); he could lift his own weight with just one hand.

12. The little boy was as wild as a tiger when we were trying to look after him.

13. You have to be as sly (хитър, лукав) as a fox to outwit (надлъгвам) me.

14. My friend was as sick as a dog when he left the restaurant last night.

19. Studying meaning of verbs and completing the sentences using the right verb form

1. My daughter chickened (провалям се в нещо, поради липса на нерви) out of going on the rollercoaster yesterday. She’s still too young for that.

2. Reporters dogged (follow someone or their movements closely and persistently) her every step, eavesdropped on her communications and published shock headlines about her family.

3. Without knowing where the shots were coming from, she ducked (гмурвам) around a corner and hid (p.p. скри) between two buildings.

4. The protesters refused to be cowed (сплшвам, укротявам) into submission (подчинение) by the army.

5. As he was so small, he could worm (провирам се бавно) through the crowd.

6. Every time we go into a shop, the kids badger (тормозя, гоня) me to buy them sweets.

7. His career has been dogged by bad luck.

8. She’ll never lose weight if she keeps pigging ( тъпча се - gorge oneself with food out) out on biscuits.

9. Someone rammed (удрям силно) into my car while it was parked outside the house.

10. The government has to find a solution to this problem that has so far foxed politicians and regulators.

20. Idioms

From the horse’s mouth
from the person directly concerned or another authoritative source
To flog a dead horse
To waste energy on a lost cause or unalterable situations. to waste time trying to do something that will not succeed (usually in continuous tenses)

“You're flogging a dead horse trying to persuade Simon to come to Spain with us - he hates going abroad. Do you think it's worth sending my manuscript to other publishers or I am just beating a dead horse?”
To bet on the wrong horse
To be mistaken in judgment, especially in backing a losing candidate. To support a person or thing that ultimately fails.

“I truly believed our candidate would win this election, but it looks like I bet on the wrong horse. I know you're confident about the success of this product, I'm just worried you might be betting on the wrong horse.”
To let the cat out of the bag
To reveal a secret carelessly or by mistake

“When Bill glanced at the door, he let the cat out of the bag. We knew then that he was expecting someone to arrive. It's a secret. Try not to let the cat out of the bag.”
To put the cat among the pigeons
to do or say something that causes trouble and makes a lot of people angry or worried

“Tell them all they've got to work on Saturday. That should set the cat among the pigeons.”
To go to the dogs
to become worse in quality or character, to deteriorate, to become bad.
To throw someone to the dogs
to allow someone to be criticized or attacked, often in order to protect yourself from being criticized or attacked

“I really felt as if I'd been thrown to the dogs just to save other people's reputations.”
To make a monkey out of someone
To humiliate someone by making them appear ridiculous
To be barking up the wrong tree
To be pursuing a mistaken or misguided line of thought or course of action
To put the cart before the horse
To do things in the wrong order.

1. Creating a large number of schools before improving school management is putting the cart before the horse.

2. The comments are taken directly from the survey forms the readers filled out, so you can get that information straight from the horse’s mouth.

3. Once again she put the cat among the pigeons, claiming that Michael was lying.

4. The young man told the judge he left abandoned by his former commanders and that he had been, as he put it, thrown to the dogs.

5. Repeatedly bailing out Greece is simply flogging a dead horse because the key economic figures are dismal (мрачен), with huge drops in output and GDP.

6. We are betting on the wrong horse if we continue to support the other candidate for mayor.

7. He was a marvelous actor, but his drinking problems caused his career to go to the dogs.

8. He had planned a surprise party for Donna, but some guy she works with let the cat out of the bag.

9. The police think the drugs are being brought in by the mafia, but they’re barking up the wrong tree. They should be looking much closer to home.

10. My friend made a monkey out of me when he started arguing with me in front of my boss.

21. Proverbs

1. Barking dogs seldom bite – people who make big threats never usually carry them out.

2. Dogs bark, but the caravan moves on – people make a fuss (врява, суетене) but it will not change the situation.

3. You can’t teach an old dog new tricks – you cannot make people change their ways; older people find it hard to learn new things.

4. Birds of a feather flock together – people with similar interests will stick together.

5. Kill two birds with one stone – achieve two aims at once; resolve two difficulties or matters with one action.

6. A leopard can’t change its spots – people cannot change basic aspects of their character, especially negative ones.

7. Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth – if you are given a present or a chance, you should not waste it by being too critical or examining it too closely.

8. One swallow does not make a summer – a single fortunate (късметлия) even doesn’t mean that what follows will also be good

9. While the cat’s away, the mice will play – people whose behavior is strictly controlled go over the top when the authority is not around.

10. The straw that broke the camel’s back a further difficulty or annoyance, typically minor in itself but coming on top of a series of difficulties, that makes a situation unbearable.

11. Run with the hare (заек) and hunt with the hounds try to remain on good terms with both sides in a conflict or disputes.

12. He wouldn’t say boo (дюдюкане, марихуана) to a goose he is quiet, timid and extremely shy.

22. Studying the following phrases and completing the sentences

Stag party (ергенско парти)
Donkey’s years (a very long time)
Monkey business (маймунджилъци)
Guinea pigs (A person who is used as a subject for experimentation or research)
Bookworm (книжен плъх)
Doggy bag (a bag for leftover food that a customer of a restaurant may take home after a meal.)
Kitty corner (used to describe two things that are located across from each other on opposite corners)
Cold fish (a person who does not seem very friendly and does not show their emotions)
Dark horse (someone who surprises others with their skills or talents)
Cash cow (a business or investment that generates a large or consistent profit.)
Rat race (a fierce struggle for success, especially in one's career or business)
Cat’s eyes (small pieces of glass or plastic that are put along the middle and sometimes the sides of a road, to reflect the lights of a car, in order to show the driver where to drive when it is dark)
Dog-eared (a turned-down corner of a page in a book.)
Spring chicken (a young person)
Rabbit food (vegetables, especially those that are raw)
Pigeonholes (a small compartment or recess, as in a desk, for holding papers; a cubbyhole.)

1. Roz had been around for three years and was no spring chicken; so the group nodded and took comfort from her.

2. Trapped in the middle are consumers, who may worry they have become unsuspecting guinea pigs in a grand global experiment.

3. A man came in with two girls, and, seeing a jolly stag party at another table, decided to join them.

4. Now it’s clear that the company may not be the cash cow Wall Street investors initially thought.

5. The gas station is kitty corner to the library.

6. In his address to the students Dr. Politzer described quantum mechanics as “monkey business” and “mumbo jumbo”.

7. He was not in any sense a bookworm, even though he read enormously, but he played as strenuously (усърдно) as he studied.

8. Catherine was selected despite being an outsider – the dark horse among the contenders (претенденти).

9. A bulky (обемист) French dictionary, old and dog-eared, stood in solitude upon the writing table.

10. People forced out of the rat race are re-evaluating their values and looking elsewhere for satisfaction.

11. Do you have a doggy bag for my dessert?

12. The psychiatrist was such a horrid (ужасен) cold fish that it was hard to summon (призовавам) sympathy for him.

13. We found the pigeonholes stuffed with manuscripts, not one in ten of which was worth printing.

14. Green cat’s eyes warn of exit or entrance slip roads.

15. Mary and Sheila are old friends. They’ve known each other for donkey’s years.

16. The girl did not like to eat her vegetables. She called it rabbit food.

23. Using the words in the right form

1. The party went on till 4 a.m. and I was dog tired (пребит от умора) the next day.

2. I would like to have been a fly on the wall when the boss was telling off my colleague.

3. Don’t take any notice of him, he’s always crying wolf.

4. When she started talking about her problems, he left like a fish out of water (риба на сухо).

5. We can’t let the grass grow under our feet – we’ve really got to get going with this project.

6. When we found we had won the contract, our manager was like a dog with two tail.

7. She gets up very irritated because they are always up with the lark and she likes to lie in.

8. Simon made a beeline (права въздушна линия, най-краткото раствояние) for the smoking room as soon as he got off the airplane.

9. When the business folded, Richard took the lion share of the assets (активи, авоари).

10. Whenever there is a frog in my throat, my voice gets a little hoarse (дрезгав) and I feel like drinking water.

11. She smelled a rat when she phoned him at the office where he was supposed to be working late and he wasn’t there. 

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